LENS Neurofeedback Treatment of Anger: Preliminary Reports
AbstractThere has been no neurofeedback outcome research on anger control. Problems with anger cut across numerous diagnostic categories and represent a serious societal problem. Two case reports are presented involving significant traumatic brain injuries and histories of chronic anger and violent behavior. The Low Energy Neurofeedback System (LENS) was used as sole treatment in both cases. Significant improvements were reported in a variety of symptoms and changes in anger were evaluated with the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory–2. Although the case reports are uncontrolled and represent only very preliminary evidence, the results support the potential of LENS neurofeedback to produce significant improvements in anger control, which has implications with many diagnoses, including traumatic brain injury, juvenile and adult correctional populations, and domestic violence. Clinicians and researchers need to begin using objective pre- and posttreatment outcome measures of anger and aggressiveness.
© International Society for Neurofeedback and Research (ISNR), all rights reserved. This article (the “Article”) may be accessed online from ISNR at no charge. The Article may be viewed online, stored in electronic or physical form, or archived for research, teaching, and private study purposes. The Article may be archived in public libraries or university libraries at the direction of said public library or university library. Any other reproduction of the Article for redistribution, sale, resale, loan, sublicensing, systematic supply, or other distribution, including both physical and electronic reproduction for such purposes, is expressly forbidden. Preparing or reproducing derivative works of this article is expressly forbidden. ISNR makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy or completeness of any content in the Article. From 1995 to 2013 the Journal of Neurotherapy was the official publication of ISNR (www. Isnr.org); on April 27, 2016 ISNR acquired the journal from Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. In 2014, ISNR established its official open-access journal NeuroRegulation (ISSN: 2373-0587; www.neuroregulation.org).