Long-Term Follow-Up of a Clinical Replication of the Peniston Protocol for Chemical Dependency

Tonya G. Callaway, Eugenia Bodenhamer-Davis


Introduction. This study is a long-term follow-up of an early replication of the Peniston EEG biofeedback (EEG-BFB) Protocol for chemical dependency (Peniston & Kulkosky, 1989, 1990). Method. This clinical trial included 16 chemically dependent adult participants treated with the Peniston Protocol in a university outpatient clinic between 1993 and 1995. Ten participants were probationers classified as high risk for rearrest. Treatment effects were assessed using pre/posttreatment measures (Beck Depression Inventory, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2) and long-term follow-up of abstinence and rearrest rates. Probationer rearrest rates were compared to an equivalent probation sample (n¼24) that did not receive EEG-BFB. Results. Initial Beck Depression Inventory scores indicated mild=moderate depression but were significantly reduced posttreatment to within normal limits. Substantial differences were noted posttreatment on 7 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 clinical scales suggesting less psychopathology following treatment. Long-term (74–98 months) follow-up indicated that 81.3% (n=13) participants were abstinent. Rearrest rates and probation revocations for the probationer subgroup were lower than the comparison group (40% vs. 79.16%). Conclusion. This study provides evidence of the durability of Peniston Protocol results over time but has the usual limitations of a clinical trial with a small sample, nonrandomized, and uncontrolled design. Implications for further research are discussed including the relevance of recent modifications to the Peniston Protocol and qEEG–based protocols in treating substance abuse.

Full Text:


DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10874200802502060


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 ISNR (International Society for Neurofeedback & Research)