The Effects of Neurofeedback on the Improvement of Rifle Shooters' Performance

  • Reza Rostami
  • Heidar Sadeghi
  • Kobra Allah Karami
  • Masoud Nosrat Abadi
  • Payman Salamati


The aim of our study was to compare rifle shooters’ performance between two groups of expert shooters, one trained with a  neurofeedback method and the other not trained. The study design employed a pretest–posttest design with an untreated control group (nonrandomized). The sample included 24 national and provincial shooters. Shooting performance was studied based on 6 indicators via a device called ‘‘Scott,’’ and paired and independent t tests were performed with corrections for multiple comparisons. A significant improvement was found for the neurofeedback group for the mean of shot results before and after the training (p¼.001), but no other improvements were found (all ps>.05). In the control group, no differences were found on any of the study indicators (all ps>.05). There was a significant difference between mean discrepancies of shot results between the two groups (p¼.01), whereas there were no such  differences in any of other the indicators (all ps>.05). Neurofeedback can be suggested as a method to improve rifle shooters’ performances.