Effects of Neurofeedback Training on Attention in Children with Intellectual Disability

  • Changhee Hong
  • Inkyoung Lee


This study investigated effects of neurofeedback (NFB) training on attention in children with intellectual disability (ID). Twenty-one children with ID were assigned to an NFB training group (n=7), to a visual perception (VP) training group (n=7), or to a no-treatment group (n=7). Two groups received 36 sessions of NFB or VP training, respectively, over 12 weeks. Children’s Color Trails Test–2, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Digit Span were administered to all participants before and after training. The follow-up study was conducted with both the NFB and VP groups in the same way after 3 months. The EEGs of the NFB group also were measured. The NFB group showed significantly improved scores on the all tests compared to the 2 control groups. The brainwaves of the frontal lobes of the NFB group declined significantly in theta wave amplitude and theta-to-beta ratio. The NFB results were maintained in the follow-up study. Beta/SMR uptraining seemed to be an effective way to enhance attention in children with ID.