Neurofeedback Efficacy in the Treatment of a 43-Year-Old Female Stroke Victim: A Case Study
AbstractIntroduction. A 43-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a series of
physical and mental deficits following a right hemisphere cerebral artery embolus suffered at age 42. Method. For both the pretreatment and posttreatment evaluation, the client’s EEG data were collected. Prior to beginning neurofeedback a self-developed symptom checklist was provided to the participant and was repeated every 10 sessions. The participant received 52 neurofeedback sessions with the use of Neurocybernetics equipment. To determine statistical changes between the pretreatment and posttreatment conditions, average cross-spectral matrices were computed for bands delta (1–3.5 Hz), theta (3.5–7.5 Hz), alpha (7.5–12.5 Hz), beta1 (12.5–25 Hz), beta2 (25–32 Hz), and gamma (37–47 Hz). In this study the pretreatment cross-spectra for each epoch were then compared to the posttreatment epoch cross-spectra using the previously mentioned frequency band ranges. For each condition, cross-spectral matrices were computed and averaged over 2-s epochs resulting in one cross-spectral matrix for each epoch and for each of the discrete frequencies within each band. Based on previous LORETA analyses, we used a rectangular window. No time frame or frequency wise normalization was performed. Results. Following treatment, comparative QEEG and eLoreta analyses illustrated significant decreases in the absolute and relative power theta measures and significant elevations of absolute and relative power occipital beta. These findings correspond to client self-report data demonstrating improvement in cognitive functioning and depressed mood. Conclusion. Overall, findings suggest the utility of neurofeedback for the treatment of stroke, with particular gains noted in the areas of cognitive functioning, sleep quality, emotional regulation, and energy.
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