LENS Neurofeedback Treatment of Anger: Preliminary Reports
AbstractThere has been no neurofeedback outcome research on anger control. Problems with anger cut across numerous diagnostic categories and represent a serious societal problem. Two case reports are presented involving significant traumatic brain injuries and histories of chronic anger and violent behavior. The Low Energy Neurofeedback System (LENS) was used as sole treatment in both cases. Significant improvements were reported in a variety of symptoms and changes in anger were evaluated with the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory–2. Although the case reports are uncontrolled and represent only very preliminary evidence, the results support the potential of LENS neurofeedback to produce significant improvements in anger control, which has implications with many diagnoses, including traumatic brain injury, juvenile and adult correctional populations, and domestic violence. Clinicians and researchers need to begin using objective pre- and posttreatment outcome measures of anger and aggressiveness.