EEG Biofeedback Case Studies Using Live Z-Score Training and a Normative Database


  • Thomas F. Collura
  • Joseph Guan
  • Jeffrey Tarrant
  • John Bailey
  • Fred Starr



This article summarizes clinical results using a neurofeedback approach that has been developed over the last several years and is seeing increasing clinical use. All participants used a form of live Z-score training (LZT) that produces sound and video feedback, based on a computation using a normative database to produce multiple targets. The client receives simple feedback that reflects a complex set of relationships between amplitude and connectivity metrics. Changes in the EEG are readily seen that conform to the reinforcement parameters being used in relation to the live Z-scores. In addition, over multiple sessions, QEEG data are seen to change significantly, generally on a path toward overall remediation. In this series of case studies LZT is seen to effectively address EEG abnormalities in a structured fashion and to facilitate normalization of the EEG. In individual cases, specific changes are observed, related to the initial conditions, and the brain’s ability to respond with appropriate changes. Overall, LZT is found to be a relatively efficient form of neurofeedback that can be demonstrated to be effective in a variety of clinical scenarios.