The Impact of Neurotherapy on College Students' Cognitive Abilities and Emotions
AbstractBackground. In past research, several case studies and five controlled-group studies explored the effect of electroencephalographic (EEG) biofeedback on intelligence, attention, and behavior in children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, but no studies have explored the effects of EEG biofeedback in nonclinical adults on measures of response control, mood, emotional intelligence, and self-efficacy. Method. Sixteen nonclinical college students were randomly assigned to receive Beta=Sensory Motor Rhythm EEG biofeedback to increase 12 to 15 Hz activity while inhibiting 4 to 7 Hz and 22 to 36 Hz activity. A control group received placebo EEG biofeedback. All participants completed pre- and postmeasures assessing intelligence scores, attention, impulse control, mood, emotional intelligence, and self-efficacy to assess the effect of EEG biofeedback. Results. Results showed significant improvements in response control but no improvements in attention. Measures of intelligence and emotional functioning did not change after EEG biofeedback. Conclusions. This study indicates that response control may improve in a few as 20 EEG biofeedback sessions. Implications and shortcomings discussed.
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