An Open Clinical Trial Utilizing Real-Time EEG Operant Conditioning as an Adjunctive Therapy in the Treatment of Crack Cocaine Dependence

  • Virginia Shannon Burkett
  • John Michael Cummins
  • Robert Malcolm Dickson
  • Malcolm Skolnick


This study investigated the treatment outcome of males dependent on crack cocaine participating in an inpatient treatment facility in which electroencephalographic operant conditioning training (EEG-OC) was added to the treatment protocol. Eighty-seven men were assessed twelve months after completion of the EEG portion of the program. Follow-up procedures of urinalyses, self-report measures, length of residence, and scores on a measure of depression were obtained and showed significant changes after treatment. The addition of EEG-OC to crack cocaine treatment regimens may promise to be an effective intervention for treating crack cocaine abuse and increasing treatment retention.