TOVA Results Following Inter-Hemispheric Bipolar EEG Training


  • J. A. Putman
  • S. F. Othmer
  • S. Othmer
  • V. E. Pollock



ABSTRACT. Introduction. This study examines recovery of attentional
measures among a heterogeneous group of clients in a pre-and
post-comparison using inter-hemispheric EEG training at homologous sites. A continuous performance test was used as an outcome measure. The client population was divided into three categories: (a) primarily attentional deficits, (b) primarily psychological complaints, and (c) both. Method. Neurofeedback protocols included T3-T4, Fp1-Fp2, F3-F4, C3-C4 and P3-P4. A wide range of reward frequencies was used, and these were individually selected to optimize the subjective experience of the training. Participants were 44 males and females, 7 to 62 years old, who underwent treatment for a variety of clinical complaints. Dependent
variables were derived from a continuous performance test, the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA), which was administered prior to EEG training and 20 to 25 sessions thereafter. Results. After EEG training a clear trend towards improvement on the impulsivity, inattention, and variability scales of the TOVA was evident.
Participants with normal pre-training scores showed no deterioration in their performance, indicating that homologous site inter-hemispheric EEG training had no deleterious effect on attention. In addition reaction time was predominately in the normal range for this population and remained unchanged following training. Conclusion. Normalization of attentional variables was observed following training irrespective of the primary clinical complaint. These
results suggest that inter-hemispheric training at homologous sites provides another “generic” EEG biofeedback protocol option for addressing attentional deficits. Inter-hemispheric training likely serves as a general challenge to the regulation of cerebral timing, phase, and coherence relationships. Such a challenge may result in more effective regulation of cerebral networks, irrespective of whether these are involved in attentional or affective regulation.