The Effects of Caffeine on the Brain: A Review
The effects of caffeine may often be overlooked in neurotherapy. However, caffeine is a potent and widely used drug which is addictive, has withdrawal symptoms associated with discontinued use, and which can produce anxiety and insomnia. It also has a rapid and profound influence on the brain, including producing increases in beta and decreases in slower brain wave activity. In contrast, during withdrawal from caffeine patients may experience increases in theta and delta, with decreases in the mean frequency of both alpha and beta. Recommendations are presented for control of caffeine use associated with EEG assessment and in neurofeedback treatment.