Audio-Visual Entrainment Program as a Treatment for Behavior Disorders in a School Setting


  • Michael Joyce
  • Dave Siever



Introduction. It has been suggested that the behavioral manifestations of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are secondary to neurological abnormalities and are characterized as low brain wave disorders. ADHD children produce higher amounts of theta (5-7 Hz) and less beta (13-21 Hz) brain wave activity than normals. Many researchers are testing the therapeutic effectiveness of Audio-Visual Entrainment (AVE) as a treatment for a variety of low arousal brain disorders. AVE is the repetitive and intermittent presentation of light and sound. AVE affects electroencephalographic (EEG) output in that brain wave output can be suppressed or enhanced at specific frequencies. Procedure. Thirty-four elementary students from two different schools were given AVE over the course of seven weeks. Participants were given the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) before and after participation. A second group of eight participants were in a special reading (SPALDING) class. All of the students in this class received the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and were compared with a control group, n = 12. Results. Overall inattention, impulsivity and variability as rated by the TOVA improved significantly. The eight students from the SPALDING reading program who received AVE improved their reading scores more than their classmates who served as controls. The results included normalization as recorded on the TOVA, substantial improvements in reading as recorded on the STAR, and improvements in general behavior as noted by teachers and parents. Discussion. The data suggests AVE was a useful experience for the participants. Parents and teachers reported the children were calmer and could focus better. The results met or exceeded our expectations.